A Quick Guide to Biomarker Solutions

A Quick Guide to Biomarker Solutions

Fibrosis and SMAD signalling

Fibrosis and SMAD signalling

During normal physiological wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis are all effectively controlled, so that once sufficient matrix has accumulated in the wound bed, matrix production ends and scarring is prevented. Should this response fail to resolve, or the tissue continues to receive injury, chronic fibrosis and scar tissue formation can occur.

Lipids as Biomarkers of Brain Disorders

Lipids as Biomarkers of Brain Disorders

Whilst the role of lipids has been particularly relevant within cardiovascular disease, their abundance in the body and high prevalence in several pivotal organs makes them novel biomarkers for many brain disorders. Lipids comprise up to 60% of the dry weight of the brain and have distinct structural attributes that allows them to contribute to many physiological functions, such as energy storage, transportation, and the formation of cell membranes. In the brain, lipids are responsible for impulse conduction, insulation, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Importantly, lipids are vital in the formation of the myelin sheath, which encases all neurons, permitting signal transmittance.

The Biomarker Association between Depression and Vascular Disease

The Biomarker Association between Depression and Vascular Disease

Major depressive disorder (MDD) has repeatedly emerged as a confounding or prognostic factor in the development of cardiovascular pathologies and other common lifestyle diseases such as diabetes and obesity

Infertility and the importance of the endometrial immune balance

Infertility and the importance of the endometrial immune balance

Infertility is defined by the World Health Organisation as the inability of a sexually active non-contracepting couple, to conceive after 12 months of regular intercourse, or to remain pregnant following conception.

Th17 Cells and IL-17: a possible link between inflammation and neuronal decline in Multiple Sclerosis

Th17 Cells and IL-17: a possible link between inflammation and neuronal decline in Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). A major component of the immunopathology of MS is the T cell-driven inflammatory attack from the peripheral immune system towards the CNS.

Spot on: Use of Dried Blood Spots (DBS) for serological immunoassays

Spot on: Use of Dried Blood Spots (DBS) for serological immunoassays

Serological immunoassays provide a complementary approach to PCR-based molecular diagnostics in the detection and monitoring of the immune response of individuals exposed to a pathogen. In addition to providing valuable information on the seroprevalence of infection, these tests also provide insight into the development and duration of immunity in convalescent individuals. This information is essential for the development of intervention strategies, which shed light on questions surrounding the spread of the disease and identify individuals at risk of reinfection.

Macrophages transfer mitochondria to sensory neurons to resolve inflammatory pain

Macrophages transfer mitochondria to sensory neurons to resolve inflammatory pain

Inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia are considered functional features of an immune response, intended to protect tissue from further damage. At the affected site, immune cells and inflammatory mediators activate sensory neurons, resulting in pain signalling. The general consensus asserts that this pain passively resolves following cessation of the inflammatory stimulus. However, in many patients with chronic inflammatory diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease), resolution of inflammation does not translate to cessation of pain. This subsequently leads to chronic pain, where pain signals remain active for weeks to years, severely impacting a patient’s quality of life. The mechanism by which inflammatory pain is successfully resolved remains poorly understood.

The prospect of immunotherapy for combating Alzheimer’s disease

The prospect of immunotherapy for combating Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive incurable neurodegenerative disorder that often leads to dementia, loss of motor function and cognitive decline. Current treatment options for Alzheimer’s disease slow the progression of neuronal degeneration and maximise function as far as possible, however, no treatment to date has managed to alter the disease process within the brain.

Rapid expansion of Treg cells protects from collateral colitis following a viral trigger

Rapid expansion of Treg cells protects from collateral colitis following a viral trigger

Regulatory T (Treg) cells are important for the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance; therefore, they are key in preventing excessive immune responses and autoimmunity and are responsible for maintaining homeostasis. Treg cells contribute to the complex pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including

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